TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol and is a collection of different protocols. The computers are connected to the Internet by using these protocols to communicate with each other. They govern the computer network on the Internet for exchanging information, messages, and data. Transmission of the message from one computer to another needs a specific address of the destination site. Every computer connected with the Internet (usually known as a node) has an address made up of four numbers between 0 and 255 e.g. 201.52.1.1. Each and every machine has a unique address on the Internet.

Internet protocol is responsible for sending messages and also read the message. If the message is long, it is segregated into different packets and is ensured that each packet is sent successfully then the complete message has resembled at the receiving end.

There are routers on the Internet that send data through different paths so that they reach the desired site. The Transmission Control Protocol ensures the division of long messages into multiple packets. A packet is an electronic envelope different from a normal postal packet and contains the following details

  • The address of the source and destination machine, or the desired destination site.
  • Information about the size of a packet is the quantity of data that can be stored in one packet.
  • Information about the break-up of data and its position, as to where it fits in the series of packets.

The Internet protocol addresses the packet and mails them. The packets are received by the computers that are called routers. Routers pass it on to other routers. The path travelled by the packet may not be the shortest possible path and also all the packets need not follow the same path. At every point, it searches to locate the destination point. The packet ultimately reaches the desired site, but not necessarily in sequential order.

Internet protocol receives the packet and gives it to TCP. It also ensures that all the packets have been received. After that, it assembled data reaches its destination.

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