Virus: The Submicroscopic Infectious Agent

Virus – The virus is known as a submicroscopic agent because its species have virions, which are so small and can be seen with an optical microscope. The virus replicates only inside the live cells. A virus cannot replicate alone. Now coronavirus is spread in the year 2019 that is responsible for lakhs of people are dead and affects the whole economy of the world.

The structure – A virus may be called a small parasite that requires a cell to reproduce. The size of a virus ranges from 0.02 to 0.025 micron. So, most of the viruses are not seen in an ordinary light microscope and they are typically studied with an electron microscope. A virus contains a nucleic acid core i.e., D.N.A (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) or RNA (Ribonucleic Acid), which is enveloped by a protective protein coat or enzymes called CAPSID. These capsids protect the viral genome from the environment. Different types of viruses have different shapes being Rods or Filaments.

Existence – Viruses can be found everywhere on earth. The virus in the living cell often kills the host-infected cell. They cannot be killed by antibodies and can only be eliminated or reduce in your body by antiviral medications and vaccines.

Viral diseases – There are some of the viral diseases are as given below –

  • HIV/AIDS
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis
  • Influenza
  • Coronavirus
  • Pneumonia
  • Mumps
  • Herpes
  • Chickenpox
  • Rubella

Symptoms – There are some of the symptoms of viral diseases are as given below –

  • Cough with yellowish, green, and brownish phlegm
  • Change in level of alertness
  • High fever
  • Jaundice
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Stiff neck

Causes– A virus enters the body and goes inside the body’s cells in order to reproduce. It multiplies and infects other cells very quickly. Anybody can be infected being bitten by infected insects or animals. Viral diseases are also causes by air-borne droplets contaminated with a virus, eating or drinking contaminated food or drinks, touching infected feces, or body fluids, sexual activity with an infected person, and many more.

Precautions – There are some of the precautions that lower the risk of spreading the virus from person to person are as given below –

  • Covering mouth and nose with a mask.
  • Do not contact hands with an infected person.
  • Wash hands properly with soap and water for five minutes before a meal or coming from outside.
  • Sexual activities only with wife or husband.
  • Eating a well-balanced diet.
  • Avoid contact with a person who is suffering from viral diseases.
  • Using condoms during sexual activity with a partner to avoid AIDS.
  • Taking recommended vaccination.
  • Drink extra fluids.
  • Taking sufficient rest.

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