What is RADAR – RADAR stands for Radio Detection and Ranging which is an electromagnetic system and can be used for detecting the distance and location of an object from the point where the RADAR is placed. The work of RADAR is by using radiating energy into space and monitoring the reflected signal from the objects which operates in the UHF and microwave range.
RADAR is a system used to detect, range and map objects such as aircraft and rain. It can also be used for detect, spacecraft, ships, guided missiles, weather formations, motor vehicles, terrain and guided missiles. Strong radio waves are transmitted, and a receiver listens for reflected echoes. The reflector can be located and sometimes identified by analyzing the reflected signal. Even though the amount of signal returned is small, radio signals can easily be amplified and detected.
A radar system has a transmitter, which generating electromagnetic waves in the form of radio or microwaves domain, a receiving antenna, a transmitting antenna, and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, providing information about the location and speed of the object. During Second World War, Radar was secretly developed for armed forces which are used by some countries.
It can operate in darkness, haze, fog, rain, snow and capability to measure distance with high accuracy in all weather conditions. Recently, radar are used in air defense system, ocean surveillance systems, target locating systems radar astronomy, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anti-collision systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance. High tech radar systems are related with digital signal processing, machine learning which has ability of take out useful information in very high noise levels.
Types of Radar
Radar systems may be divided into different types of radars which is based on the designed use
- Doppler Radar
- Air-Defense Radars
- Passive Radar
- Air Traffic Control Radars
- Fire-control Radar or Tracking Radar
- Speed gauges
- Airborne Radar
- Mortar locating Radar
- Radar Satellites
- Weather Radar
- Ground Penetrating Radar
Applications of RADAR
There are several applications of radar which are discussed below
Navigational radars – It is generally used in commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft. Radars are also used in finding the depth of sea. It also used to avoid collisions between aircrafts and ships in air and sea and safely landings of aircrafts and ships.
Military applications – Radar is used for surveillance purpose of the enemy aircraft. The surveillance radar is used in detect, locate and identified the targets of the enemy. It is also being used for providing navigational aids to military or as well as civil aircraft. It is also used for tracking the targets and controlling of weapons.
Weather radars – This type of radar use radio waves with horizontal, dual (horizontal and vertical), or circular polarization. Weather radars use Doppler to measure speeds of wind.
Space – RADARs are used for securely landing of spacecrafts and avoid collisions between two spacecrafts. Satellite based RADARs are also used for remote sensing. Ground based RADARs are used to detect and track the spacecraft satellites. It also used in other areas such as
- To observe the meteors.
- To monitor the planetary systems.
- To guide the spacecraft for safely landing on moon.
Air traffic control – Radar are used in several area such as
- It is used to control air traffic, display and detect the position of airplane in the airports terminals.
- To guide the airplane during bad weather by using Precision Approach Radar.
- It is also used in scan the surface of airport for the positions of ground vehicle and airplane.
Ground Traffic Control – Traffic police use radar to controlling the movement of vehicles and determine the speed of the vehicle by giving warnings about the presence of other vehicles or any other obstacles behind them.
Remote Sensing – For observing planetary positions or weather conditions and watching sea ice to make sure smooth route for ships by using radar.
Law Enforcement and Highway Safety – Highway police force generally uses Radar to determine the speed of the vehicle for safety regulations.