Power Sector in India

Overview – As we know power is one of the main components for the development of the infrastructure and economic growth of India. Power is also an essential need for common people just as water and air. It is also necessary for the existence of development of infrastructure and the economic growth for our country.

The Power sector in our country is one of the most diversified in all over the world.  There are three main pillars of power sector in our country such as Generation, Transmission and Distribution. Normally Generation of power is divided into three sectors such as Central sector, State sector and Private sector. Ministry of power governed the power sector in India.

Image result for Power sector in India"

As on December 31, 2012 Public or Central sector undertakings PSUs comprise 29.78 percent (62826.63MW) of total installed capacity of, 210951.72 MW in India. There are several main PSUs which are involved in the production of electricity such as NTPC Ltd, NHPC Ltd and Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL). The responsibility of the Power Grid Corporation of India is the transmission of electricity in states and the development of national grid.

Now when the population increase day by day, the demand of electricity has increased rapidly in our country and may increase in demand of electricity in future years.. To tackle the challenges for increasing demand in electricity in our country installed massive electricity generating is required.

Image result for Power sector in India"

The fourth position of India is in the Asia Pacific region out of 25 countries on an index which measures the overall power.

The position of India is 6th largest energy consumer in all over the world accounting for 3.4 percent of worldwide energy consumption. Maharashtra is one of the Indian states that for largest electricity producer in our country. Due to development of economic growth in our country, the demand for power has grown at an average of 3.6 percent per year for the past 30 years. The capacity of production of electricity of our country at 210951.72MW at the end of December 2012 and the per capita energy consumption stood at 733.54 KWh between 2008 and 2009. The Government of India has set the target to add about 78,000 MW of installed generation capacity in the year 2012 and the total demand of electricity in our country to cross 950,000 MW in the year 2030.

Image result for Power sector in India"

The generation of sources of power is from conventional sources such as natural gas, oil, coal, and nuclear power. At present, nuclear is one of the most important sources of power with reasonable cost.

The nuclear power is produced by the use of nuclear reactions which release nuclear energy for generating heat and this heat are used in steam turbine for the production of electricity in a nuclear power plant. Another way to obtained nuclear power is from nuclear fusion reactions, nuclear decay and nuclear fission. Now most of the electricity from nuclear power is generated by using nuclear fission of plutonium and uranium.  

In India, nuclear power is the fifth largest source of electricity after the use of hydroelectricity, coal, and wind power. Our country has 22 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants with total installed capacity of 6,780 MW in March 2018.The total production of nuclear power in our country is of about 35 TWh which supplied about 3.22 percent of Indian electricity in 2017. There are 7 more nuclear reactors are under construction. After construction of 7 nuclear reactors then production of electricity is about 4,300 MW.

Image result for Power sector in India"

Our country made a plan in October 2010 for achieving a capacity of nuclear power of 63 GW in the year 2032. But when the nuclear disaster is in Fukushima Japan in the year 2011, people protested against the install of sites of nuclear power plant and raising question about the sites.  There is massive protests against the support of France made Nuclear Power Project of 9,900MW in Jaitpur in the state of Maharashtra. The people of Tamil Nadu also protests against the Russian support Nuclear Power Plant of 2,000MW in Kudankulam.  After the massive opposed in various states, the state government of West Bengal has not give permission for installing of 6,000 MW Nuclear power plants with six Russian reactors close to the town of Haripur. To protest the installing of the nuclear power plant is in several states of India a PIL (Public Interest Litigation has been files against the government plan to install the nuclear power plant in the Supreme Court..

This electricity generated by the use of nuclear power prevents the problem of increasing power demand in our country. There are several non –conventional sources of power such as solar, wind, domestic and agricultural waste.

Market size – The power sector in our country is experiencing a important change which has redefined the industry outlook. The growth of economy also electricity needs in India.

The Indian Government has focuses on increase production of power due to increasing demand electricity in India. In India, total installed capacity of power stations which produces electricity stood at 356.82 Gigawatt (GW) in May 2019.

Investment for generating power – The Company invested US$ 14.32 billion in Foreign Direct Exchange (FDI) from April 2000 to March 2019 which accounting for 3.41 percent of total FDI in our country.

There are several main investments for the development f of electricity to resolve the problem of power crisis as increasing demand day by day due to rise in population  are as given below –

  • Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Co (KKR) acquired Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited fort worth US$ 530 million in August 2018.
  • Renascent Power Ventures Pte Limited obtain 75.01 percent stake in the Prayagraj Power Generation Company Limited (PPGCL) for US$ 854.94 million in November 2018.
  • Renew Power made the great deal through obtaining Ostro Energy for US$ 1,668.21 million in April 2018.

Plans of Government to improve production of power – An Indian Government has to focuses seriously on power sector in our country which is used as a basic need and development of economic growth of our country.

Image result for Power sector in India"

There are some plans by the Indian Government for increasing the power sector in our country is as follows

  • The Government of India has launched Ujwal Discoms Assurance Yojana (UDAY) to promote operational and financial  rotate of power distributions companies by state (DISCOMS) with an future  plan to decrease Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) losses to 15 percent in financial year.2019.
  • In 2018,an Indian Government approved National Policy on Biofuels in which expected benefits of this plan a such as cleaner environment, decreased import dependency, health benefits, generate employment, improve power capacity, promote infrastructural investments in rural areas and increase in income of farmers.
  • A draft amendment for Electricity Act 2003 has been launched in September 2018 in which it discusses separation of carriage and content which is directly benefit of transfer of subsidy for the 24 hours power supply with disturbance provide in our country.

Achievements – There are some achievements in the past four years for the development of power sector in India are as given below –

  • In 2018, the position of India improves and jumped to 24 from the rank of 137 in the year 2014 with the facility of business with World Bank and improve ranking in getting electricity.
  • There is 100 percent electrification in rural areas which is achieved under Deen Dayal Upadhayaya Gram Jyoti Yojana on April 28, 2018.
  • In Financial year 2018, there is shortage of electricity reduced to 0.7 percent from 4.2 percent in financial year 2014.

Future Plan of Government – The future plan of Government of India is to achieve power for future demand which is increases rapidly as increase in population in our country. An Indian Government has introduced its roadmap to achieve the capacity of 175 GW by using renewable energy in the year 2022 which includes solar power of 100 GW and wind power of 60 GW. To resolve the problem of power in 2022, the Central Government of India will prepare a rent a roof policy to support the target or aim for producing a power of 40 GW by using solar rooftop projects in the year 2022.

At present, the generation of capacity of power by using coal in our country stands at 191.09 in May 2019 which is expected to achieve 330 – 441 GW in the year 2040.

In the year 2019, Our country could become the first country in all over the world for using LEDs to all needs of lighting, thus it will save the largest amount of Rs 40,000 crore  (US$ 6.23 billion) on an annual basis.

According to the Ministry of Power and New & Renewable Energy, Government of India, all the states and union territories of our country are on board to fulfill the vision of Indian Government for ensuring continuous 24 hours power supply in the March 2019

Conclusion – As we know the power is one of the basic needs for common people as well as the development of economic growth of our country. As increases population day by day the rapid increase in the demand of electricity thus Government of India make a several plan to increase the power capacity for future years to resolve the problem of power crisis.