Haemophilia – It is also called as Hemophilia. This is a disease in which blood does not CLOT if exposed by an injury. It is generally hereditary genetic disorder that harms the ability of the body to make blood clots that is a process to stop bleeding. It results in an individual bleeding longer during or after an injury. It may increase risk of bleeding inside joints or the brain.
This disease is caused by a defective gene in one of the sex chromosomes called X-chromosomes. The males have one x and one y chromosome while female possesses two x- chromosomes. As the males have only one x-chromosomes and if it carries the defective gene, the males suffer from the disease. In females who have two x-chromosomes, the defective gene may be on one chromosome, the other chromosome should express itself to produce necessary clotting factors, so the females are not generally affected by this disease. However, it is possible for females to become mild haemophilia due to inactivation of the x-chromosomes.
Types of haemophilia – There are several types of haemophilia
- Haemophilia A – It occurs due to not enough clotting factor VIII
- Haemophilia B – It occurs due to not enough clotting factor IX
- Haemophilia C – It occurs due to not enough clotting factor XI
- Parahaemophilia – It occurs due to not enough clotting factor V
Factor VIII is an essential blood clotting protein which is produced in liver. Factor IX is one of the serene proteases of the coagulation system. Factor XI is one of the enzymes of the coagulation cascade.
Treatment is by replacing the missing blood clotting factors. It may be done on a daily basis or during bleeding episodes